Contents

Introduction

What makes a great recording?

Section One - Record

1 - An Introduction to How Sound Works                       

How Sound Works

Amplitude

Sound Dispersion

Equal Loudness Contours

Speaker to Room Relationship

2 - Types of Speakers

Active Studio Speakers

Passive Studio Speakers

Two Way Speakers

Three Way Speakers

Dual Concentric Speakers (Coaxial Speakers)

Subwoofer

Ported (Vented) vs Closed (sealed) Speaker Cabinets

Choosing Monitors

3 - Speaker Placement

Speaker Placement

Speaker Positioning

Comb Filtering

Decoupling

4 - Room Acoustic Treatment

Room Acoustic Treatment

Broadband Bass Absorption

Room Treatment

Early Reflections

Low Ceilings

Rear Wall

Retail or DIY Broadband Bass Traps?

Room Measurement

Measuring Your Room

5 - DIY Broadband Bass Trap

DIY Broadband Bass Trap

6 - Speaker Listening Levels

Speaker Listening Levels

How to Calibrate your Listening Level

K20 - Monitoring Levels for Film Music Production

K14 - Monitoring Levels for Commercial Music Production

K12 - Monitoring Levels for Broadcast

Setting up a Subwoofer                

7 - Sample Rate

Sample Rate

Upsampling

Downsampling

8 - Bit Depth (Word length)

Bit Depth (Word Length)

9 - Nyquist Frequency, Aliasing and Oversampling

Nyquist Frequency, Aliasing and Oversampling

Oversampling                       

10 - Word Clock, Jitter and Frequency Drift

Word Clock and Jitter

Frequency Drift                      

11 - File Formats

File Formats

12 - Audio Cables

Balanced

Unbalanced

XLR

Digital Audio Cables

Coaxial (Coax)

Optical (Toslink)

AES/EBU

13 - Audio Interface

Audio Interface

14 - Equipment Connections

Equipment Connections

15 - Phase

Phase

16 - Microphone, Instrument and Line Level

Mic Level

Instrument Level

Line Level

DI (Direct Injection or Direct Input) Box                    

17 - Microphones

 Dynamic Microphone

Condenser Microphone

Small Diaphragm Condenser Microphone

Ribbon Microphone

Microphone Polar Patterns

Cardioid

Hypercardioid

Bidirectional (Figure 8)

Omnidirectional

Proximity Effect                       

18 - Preamps

Preamps

19 - Recording Vocals

What type of microphone should I use?

Which polar pattern should I select?

Should I use a pop shield?

Should I use a shock-mount?

Should I use the microphone hi pass filter (HPF)?

How far from the microphone should I stand?

Recording with Compression

20 - Controller Keyboards

Controller Keyboards

21 - DC Offset

DC Offset

22 - H/W Buffer Size and Latency

H/W Buffer Size and Latency                      

23 - Headphones

Headphones

Headphone Impedance

Cue Mix

Mixing on Headphones                  

24 - Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)

Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)

DAW Controls and Functions

Arrange Window

Tracks

Transport

Counter

Grid

Mix Window

Mixer

Tools

Midi Edit Window

Section Two - Mix

25 - Gain Staging

Analog Gain Staging

Digital Gain Staging

26 - Equalisers

Equalisers

Graphic Equalisers

Parametric Equalisers

Types of Equaliser Filters

Dynamic Eq

Minimum Phase

Linear Phase

Baxandall Curve

Frequency Range

Equaliser Tips

Modelled Equalisers

Piano Display

27 - Compressors

Compressors

Threshold/Attack/Release/Ratio

Knee

Different Types of Compressor

Feedforward and Feedback Processing

How to use a Compressor

Compressor Settings

 Sidechain Compression

Sidechain Eq Filter

Parallel Compression (Parallel Processing)

Multiband Compressors

28 - Resonance and Spectral Shaping

Resonance and Spectral Shaping

29 - Limiters

Limiters

30 - Expanders and Noise Gates

Expanders

Noise Gates               

31 - De-Essers

De-Essers

Automation

De-esser Plugin

Dynamic Eq

Sidechain Compression

Separate Track                

32 - Effects

Effects

Reverberation (Reverb)

Delay and Echo

Modulation Effects - Phaser, Flanger and Chorus

Distortion and Saturation

Inserting Effects

Pitch Correction

33 - Subgroups

Subgroups     

Subgroups and VCA

Step by step guide to routing

34 - Monitoring in Mono

Monitoring in Mono

35 - Mid/Side Processing

Mid/Side Processing

36 - Transients

Transients

37 - Panning

Panning

Pan Law

38 - Plosives

Plosives

39 - Zero Crossing and Crossfades

Zero Crossing and Crossfades

40 - Mixing Tips

Mixing Tips

Getting ready to Mix

Drums and Bass

Vocals

Guitars and Synths

General

Section Three - Master

41 - What is Mastering

What is Mastering

42 - Prepare your track for Mastering

Prepare your track for Mastering

43 - Mastering tools

Compression

Equalisation

Harmonic Exciter

Reverb

Stereo Enhancement

Limiting and Clipping

44 - Dither

Dither

45 - Metering: Peak, RMS and LUFS

Peak, RMS and LUFS

PPM (Peak Program Meters)

RMS (Root Mean Square)

LUFS (Loudness Units Full Scale)

46. Master Your Song

Mastering your song

Listen

Dynamics and Compression

Corrective Eq and Tone Shaping

Harmonic Enhancement

Limiting

Dither

Mastering Chain

Stem Mastering

Glossary


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